Église Saint-Loup de Thillois

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Champagne-Ardenne

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Marne

L‘Église Saint-Loup de Thillois est une église du diocèse de Reims.

L’église de Thillois est dédiée à Lou, d’architecture romane, elle date du XIIIe siècle. Elle fut grandement endommagée par la Première Guerre mondiale et est classée au titre des Monuments historiques depuis le . Elle a été reconstruite et dans le cimetière, outre un monument aux morts, se trouve un ossuaire en mémoire des soldats morts pour la France lors des combats du 12 septembre 1914, qui permirent d’arrêter l’offensive allemande.

Fonds baptismaux.

La nef et le portail.

Un chapiteau sculpté.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

The Flying Wallendas

The Flying Wallendas is the name of a circus act and daredevil stunt performers, most known for performing highwire acts without a safety net. They were first known as The Great Wallendas, but the current name was coined by the press in the 1940s and has stayed since. The name in their native German, „Die fliegenden Wallendas“, is a play on the title of the Wagner opera, Der fliegende Holländer („The Flying Dutchman“).

Karl Wallenda was born in Magdeburg, Germany, in 1905 to an old circus family, and began performing at the age of six. While still in his teens he answered an ad for a hand balancer with courage. His employer, Louis Weitzman, taught him the trade. In 1922, Karl put together his own act with his brother Herman, Joseph Geiger, and a teenage girl, Helen Kreis, who eventually became his wife.

The act toured Europe for several years, performing some amazing stunts. When John Ringling saw them perform in Cuba, he quickly hired them to perform at the Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus. In 1928, they debuted at the Madison Square Garden. The act performed without a net (it had been lost in transit) and the crowd gave them a standing ovation.

At a performance in Akron, Ohio, all the group fell off the wire, but were unhurt. The next day, a reporter who witnessed the accident was quoted in the newspaper: „The Wallendas fell so gracefully that it seemed as if they were flying“ – thus coining the name „The Flying Wallendas“.[citation needed]

In 1944, while the Wallendas were performing in Hartford, Connecticut, a circus fire broke out, killing over 168 people. None of the Wallendas were hurt.

In the following years, Karl developed some of their most impressive acts, such as the seven-person chair pyramid. They continued performing those acts until 1962, when, while performing at the Shrine Circus at Detroit’s State Fair Coliseum, the front man on the wire faltered and the pyramid collapsed. Three men fell to the ground, killing Richard Faughnan, Wallenda’s son-in-law; and nephew Dieter Schepp. Karl injured his pelvis, and his adopted son, Mario, was paralyzed from the waist down.

Other tragedies include when Wallenda’s sister-in-law, Rietta, fell to her death in 1963, and his son-in-law Richard („Chico“) Guzman was killed in 1972 after touching a live electric wire while holding part of the metal rigging. Nonetheless, Karl decided to go on. He repeated the pyramid act in 1963 and 1977. Karl continued performing with a smaller group, and doing solo acts.

Karl Wallenda crossed the Tallulah Gorge in Georgia on a high wire on July 18, 1970.

On March 22, 1978, during a promotional walk in San Juan, Puerto Rico, Karl Wallenda fell from the wire and died. It was between the towers of Condado Plaza Hotel, one hundred feet high. He was 73. Nik Wallenda completed the walk on June 4, 2011, with his mother, Delilah.

On March 5, 1993, Karl’s grandson Mario B. Wallenda (not to be confused with Karl’s adopted son) died from complications of AIDS at the age of 36. He had tested positive for the disease in July 1990.

On October 15, 2008, Nik broke the world record for the highest and longest bike ride on a high wire live on NBC’s Today.

Nik Wallenda became the first aerialist to walk directly over Niagara Falls on June 15, 2012, from the United States into Canada. Wearing a safety harness as required by ABC television, he crossed at the river’s widest point.

Nik Wallenda is the first aerialist to walk over the Little Colorado River Gorge at the Grand Canyon. The event was broadcast live on the Discovery Channel. He used a 2-inch wire and made the journey without a harness or safety net. The canyon is 1,400 feet (430 m) wide and 1,500 feet (460 m) deep.

There are several branches of the Wallendas performing today, comprising mostly grandchildren of Karl Wallenda. They still perform regularly and have achieved recognition in the Guinness Book of Records. On November 2, 2014, Nik successfully crossed between two Chicago skyscrapers, the west tower of Marina City and the Leo Burnett Building. After accomplishing this feat, he successfully crossed the two towers of Marina City while wearing a blindfold in cold conditions with strong winds. He set two world records, one for the highest incline, 19 degrees, between the west tower and the Leo Burnett building and one for the highest blindfolded wire walk between the two towers of Marina City. Both crossings were broadcast live on Discovery Channel.

Wereldkampioenschap dammen 2009 (match)

De match om het wereldkampioenschap dammen 2009 werd van 6 t/m 21 juni 2009 gespeeld in Twente door titelverdediger Aleksandr Schwarzman en zijn uitdager Aleksandr Georgiejev. De match werd na een barrage beslist in het voordeel van Schwarzman. Schwarzman verkreeg het recht om zijn titel later in het jaar te verdedigen in het toernooi om het wereldkampioenschap 2009 dat in Brazilië zou worden gespeeld en waarvoor Georgiejev ook geplaatst was maar dat toernooi ging niet door.

De eerste 4 partijen werden gespeeld in het Nationaal Muziekkwartier in Enschede, de volgende 2 in het gemeentehuis van Twenterand, daarna 4 in het gemeentehuis van Hengelo en de laatste 2 weer in het Nationaal Muziekkwartier in Enschede. Alle 12 partijen eindigden in remise waarmee een barrage noodzakelijk werd.

Op zaterdag 20 juni werden in de Universiteit Twente eerst drie rapid-partijen (20 minuten per partij en 10 seconden per zet) gespeeld waarvan Georgiejev de tweede met wit in de Keller-variant won. Daarna werden drie blitz-partijen (10 minuten per persoon per partij en 5 seconden per zet) gespeeld waarvan Schwarzman met zwart de eerste won omdat Georgiejev in het begin van het middenspel te scherp positiespel speelde. De tussenstand na de barragepartijen op zaterdag kwam daarmee op 1 – 1.

Op zondag 21 juni werden (ooit door Georgiejev geïntroduceerde) micromatches gespeeld. Daarbij kregen beide spelers twintig minuten bedenktijd plus 5 seconden bonus per uitgevoerde zet (of eventueel 15 minuten plus 2 seconden als het te lang gaat duren). Wanneer de spelers tot remise besluiten wordt de klok met de overgebleven bedenktijd niet teruggedraaid maar worden alleen de schijven weer in slagorde gebracht voor een nieuwe partij, net zo lang tot een winnaar bekend is.

De eerste micromatch begon om 11 uur en werd in de vierde partij gewonnen door Schwarzman die in het middenspel een sterke centrumomsingeling opzette en na een blunder van Georgiejev in het late middenspel met beslissend voordeel een schijf won. De tussenstand kwam hiermee op 2 – 1 in het voordeel van Schwarzman.

De tweede micromatch begon om 13.30 uur en werd in de vijfde partij gewonnen door Schwarzman omdat Georgiejev te veel risico’s nam met een combinatie van randspel met een korte vleugel opsluiting. In het late middenspel sloeg Schwarzman toe met een lichte doorbraakcombinatie waarmee hij de match met 3 – 1 won en daarmee zijn derde wereldtitel veroverde.

Toernooi: 1912 · 1925 · 1928 · 1931 · 1948 · 1952 · 1956 · 1960 · 1964 · 1968 · 1972 · 1976 · 1978/79 · 1980 · 1982 · 1983 · 1984 · 1986 · 1988 · 1990 · 1992 · 1994 · 1996/97 · 2001 · 2003 · 2005 · 2007 · 2009 · 2011 · 2013 · 2015
Matches: 1932 · 1933 · 1934 · 1936 · 1936 · 1937 · 1938 · 1945 · 1947 · 1951 · 1954 · 1958 · 1959 · 1961 · 1965 · 1968 · 1969 · 1972 · 1973 · 1974/75 · 1979 · 1981 · 1983 · 1984 · 1985 · 1987 · 1990 · 1991 · 1993/94 · 1996 · 1998 · 2003 · 2004 · 2006 · 2009 · 2013 · 2015

Louis Belmas

Louis Belmas (11 August 1757 – Montréal, Aude – 21 July 1841) was a French churchman and bishop.

Louis was born to a publicly esteemed businessman in Languedoc and his wife, both of whom died within six weeks of each other when Louis was aged only 4½. They left behind Louis, seven other children and a very limited fortune. Louis was adopted by his godfather, who took him into his household and took charge of his education. Louis was first sent to the schools in his small birthplace and soon began studying Latin at the collège in Carcassonne. There, from his ’sixième‘ year to his ‚rhétorique‘ year at the collège de l’Esquille at Toulouse, he enjoyed brilliant success, nearly always coming first in the public exams.

At the end of 1772 he received the tonsure from Armand Bazin de Bezons, bishop of Carcassonne, who two years later gave Belmas a bursary to attend the Toulouse seminary, run by Oratorian priests, where Belmas studied philosophy and theology with distinction and from which he graduated bachelor. He then returned to Carcassonne and was ordained priest on 22 December 1781. He was then made vicar of Saint-Michel de Carcassonne, a role he successfully filled until 1782, when he became a prebendary at the collegial church of Saint-Vincent de Montréal and was summoned by bishop M. Chastenet de Puységur to head the seminary at Carcassonne. In 1786, de Puységur made him promoter general of the diocese and (on Belmas’s request) granted him the cure of Carlipa. By the general wish of the people of Carlipa, Belmas was then summoned to the cure of Castelnaudary, capital of Lauraguais. In this new post, he won the commitment and confidence of those with whom he disagreed and protected démissionnaires from over-exultancy, becoming known in Castelnaudary as le Bon curé. His reputation of bounty spread with that of his major talents in administration and charity, to the point where (aged 43) he was judged worthy of a see.

M. Guillaume Besancel, constitutional bishop of the Aude, rendered unable to carry out his duty by infirmities and old age, stated his desire to have a coadjutor. In obedience to the regime then in force, public votes were carried out for such a post, won every time by Belmas. Besancel died on 6 February 1801 and Belmas (who had supported the civil constitution of the clergy) replaced him on 26 October 1800. He was consecrated at Carcassonne during the sitting of a provincial council of 11 bishops. Belmas then assisted at the national council in Paris in 1801, taking the title of bishop of Narbonne (a city that, under the demarcation laid out by the National Constituent Assembly, had become the seat of the bishop of Aude). At the end of the national council Belmas pronounced a discourse on the subject of conferences which had been indicated with the non-swearing clergy.

After the Concordat of 1801, Fouché made Belmas one of the 12 constitutional bishops who were re-appointed to new seats. It was known that many of these prelates (including Belmas) were refusing to sign a retraction that the legate would demand of them – they declared only that they renounced the civil constitution of the clergy, condemned by the Holy See. When France’s break from Rome was finally ended by the combined efforts of pope Pius VII and first consul Napoleon, Belmas was appointed to the seat of Cambrai (now only a diocese under the metropolitan of Paris rather than an archdiocese of its own) on 11 April 1802. He was sworn in on 18 April that year and enthroned the following 6 June.

Prior to Belmas’s arrival, Cambrai was not what it once was, with a glut of clergy and fine religious buildings but no bishop and a cathedral in ruins. His first priority was to organise and rebuild the diocese from scratch. Such work was vast and near-impossible, with no unity or discipline among its clergy, not a single priestly establishment and no monetary resources, but (far from being discouraged) Belmas’s zeal and energy was only redoubled by such obstacles. Appealing to the charity of the faithful and with no government subsidy, he brought all his projects to fruition. For a new cathedral he at first chose the former abbey church of Saint-Aubert (formerly known as the église Saint-Géry), preserved but in secular use, then shortly afterwards the church of Saint-Sépulcre, setting up his own base in Saint-Sépulcre’s former abbey buildings. He devoted all his energy and concerns to reorganising the liturgy and to gathering, leading and supporting the scattered clergy. Soon he also started building a vast house for a new diocesan seminary and later, by new additions and dispositions, in its turn made the former Jesuit college the main seminary (using the new house as a church secondary school instead).

When the pope arrived in Paris for Napoleon’s coronation on 2 December 1802 Belmas gave a new guarantee of his feelings by signing a letter presented by the pope with a full account of the Holy See’s judgements on France’s ecclesiastical affairs. The tomb containing the body of Fénelon was rediscovered in 1804 and Cambrai’s magistrates resolved to transfer the remains into the chapel of the hospice de Sainte-Agnès. However, the planned ceremony for the translation was more like a pagan festival than a catholic ceremony and Belmas declared that neither he nor his clergy could accept the places in the procession that they had been assigned, which he felt unworthy of his archepiscopal dignity. He appealed to Napoleon himself, who got to know the full facts on the problem and then adjourned the ceremony indefinitely. This led to resentment and even attacks against Belmas, while the new tomb was repeatedly delayed and only completed during the Second Restoration in 1815 (being inaugurated on 7 January 1826, with a remarkable sermon by Belmas).

Following Napoleon’s deportation of the pope to Savona, a church council was convoked in Paris in 1811 to remedy some of the problems Catholicism was having in France – Belmas attended it but seems not to have taken an active part. He remained bishop during the First Restoration and Hundred Days. He called Napoleon his ‚benefactor‘, having been made a baron de l’Empire by him. After his Second Restoration, Louis XVIII entered Cambrai on 26 June 1815 but (with the memory of Belmas’s participation in the Champ-de-Mai ceremony on 1 June 1815 still fresh in his mind) refused to visit the bishop’s palace, basing himself at a private citizen’s house instead. Louis, however, later welcomed Belmas with kindness. Belmas then went to Paris, where he successfully sued for the release of some of his diocesan clergy, who had been gravely compromised during the Hundred Days and otherwise faced horrible royalist revenge – Belmas was particularly esteemed even by the Duke of Wellington, to whose support Belmas perhaps owed some of his successes around this time. Belmas refused repeated pressure to resign his see.

In apostolic letters dated 6 of the kalends of August 1817, Cambrai was once again promoted to an archdiocese at Louis XVIII’s request. These letters followed the 1817 concordat, which had resolved on such a promotion, but the papal court did not wish to reward Belmas at all in this gift of a higher title. It was proposed that he resign, but he would only consent to that if they give him the title of archbishop in partibus, which the pope was unwilling to do, and so Cambrai’s promotion to an archdiocese was adjourned by a papal bull of October 1822.

On a tour of France’s northern provinces, Charles X arrived in Cambrai on 4 September 1827 and requested lodgings at the bishop’s palace. Belmas agreed to house him and neglected nothing in showing his guest respect and devotion. He later joined the 1830 revolution without hesitation and so when Louis Philippe of France found himself in Cambrai in 1852 he made Belmas a commander of the Légion d’honneur, even suggesting his promotion to archbishop of Avignon (though Belmas declined it). Until his last day Belmas worked hard and with presence of mind for his diocese, still having his correspondence read to him and dictating his replies until shortly before his death. He was also getting ready for the next ordinations at the time of his death and sent out a letter so that his death would not delay them. After a long illness, made harder by his old age, he died on 21 July 1841 after holding the see for nearly 40 years. The see was promoted to an archdiocese after Belmas’s death by a bull of pope Gregory XVI on 1 October 1841 in favour of Pierre Giraud.

Dr Lenglet carried out the autopsy on Belmas, finding the heart in a quite abnormal state (though Belmas had never complained of chest pains) and enormous tumefactions and ugly disorders in the guts. Casimir-Alexis-Joseph Wicart (then curé-doyen of Sainte-Catherine in Lille, later bishop of Fréjus) led Belmas’s funeral in Cambrai, with the whole town in mourning. All the cathedral bells and all the bells at the église Saint-Géry sounded grand peals at 6am, midday and 6pm, a cannon was fired on the hour and at the bishop’s palace there was a huge crush of people who had come to see the bishop one last time and to pray for him.

Agoraphobic Nosebleed

Agoraphobic Nosebleed (abbreviated as ANb) is a grindcore band formed in 1994 in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States. Its line-up has changed often over the years, with guitarist and drum programmer Scott Hull being the only continuous member. The current line-up includes vocalists Jay Randall, Kat Katz, formerly of Salome, and Richard Johnson of Enemy Soil and Drugs of Faith, along with John Jarvis of Pig Destroyer and Fulgora on bass guitar. Agoraphobic Nosebleed is one of the most well-known drum-machine grindcore bands, and has influenced many drum-machine grindcore bands.

The band is known for the brevity of its songs. The album Altered States of America features 100 songs (including one hidden) in just under 22 minutes, with many songs of 5 seconds or less, and the longest song being only 1:45.

Agoraphobic Nosebleed is also known for rarely playing live. The band played at the 2003 New England Metal and Hardcore Festival. As the band’s appearance was unscheduled, Pig Destroyer cut its set short so Agoraphobic Nosebleed could play two songs and an intro. Twelve years later, the band finally played their first full live set at the 2015 edition of the Maryland Deathfest. Their second full live set was played on November 15, 2015 at the Housecore Horror Festival Part III in San Antonio, TX. In keeping with the band’s aesthetic, no live drummer has been used at the performances.

In 2006, Hydra Head Records reissued Agoraphobic Nosebleed’s 6″ PCP Torpedo as a double disc set entitled PCP Torpedo/ANbRx. The first disc consists of the 10-song, 6-minute original EP. The second disc is over an hour’s worth of remixes of songs from PCP Torpedo by breakcore and noise music artists such as Xanopticon, James Plotkin, Merzbow, and Justin Broadrick.

In 2009, the band released the album Agorapocalypse on Relapse, available as a CD, LP, and longbox CD. The split 7″ with Crom was released a month later. In 2010, the band released a split 7″ with The Endless Blockade for Relapse Records and a split 5″ with A.N.S. for Tankcrimes Records. A split CD/LP with Despise You was released on Relapse in 2011. The December 2011 issue of Decibel Magazine included a flexi disc titled Make a Joyful Noise, and the December 2012 issue included a flexi disc containing the song „Merry Chrystmeth“.

Agoraphobic Nosebleed is recording four Eps, each written in the preferred style of a specific member. Kat Katz’s Ep, Arc, was released in 2016. Randall is currently working on Drum Machine Gun 2, as well as doing a collaborative 7″ with Wadge and a collaborative 12″ with Black Mayonnaise.


Die Copolymerisation ist eine Sonderform einer Polyreaktion. Sie unterscheidet sich von der „einfachen“ Polyreaktion dadurch, dass statt eines Monomers ein Gemisch von zwei oder mehreren chemisch unterschiedlichen Monomeren eingesetzt wird. Das Produkt der Copolymerisation ist ein Copolymer.

Copolymerisation macht eine Vielzahl von Werkstoffen zugänglich. Durch Abstimmung der Art und Molverhältnisse der Monomeren im Polymer lassen sich viele Eigenschaften über einen weiten Bereich variieren. Eine wichtige Klasse sind die thermoplastischen Elastomere. Diese werden bei erhöhter Temperatur zu Thermoplasten und können wie diese einfach verarbeitet werden. Nach Erkalten zeigen sie wieder (gummi)elastische Eigenschaften. Auch Weichmachung (Innere Weichmachung) ist durch Copolymerisation erreichbar. Ein externer Weichmacher wird dann nicht mehr benötigt.

Für die Prozessführung der Synthese ist es wichtig zu wissen, welche Zusammensetzung das Copolymere haben soll. Dementsprechend müssen die Monomere eingesetzt werden. Betrachtet man zunächst die Synthese eines Copolymeren aus zwei Monomeren (für höhere Systeme gilt das Modell entsprechend). Grundsätzlich sind vier Einzelreaktionen am Kettenende eines Makromoleküls zu dessen Propagation möglich:

Aus den vier Geschwindigkeitskonstanten erstellt man nun Quotienten, die auch Copolymerisationsparameter genannt werden:

Die Parameter geben die Wahrscheinlichkeit an, mit der das Monomer M


{\displaystyle _{1}}

oder M


{\displaystyle _{2}}

an ein Kettenende angelagert wird, welches eine M


{\displaystyle _{1}}

oder M


{\displaystyle _{2}}

Gruppe trägt.

Ist z.B.





{\displaystyle r_{1}<1}

, wird das Monomer 2 bevorzugt an das Kettenende 1 angelagert. Für





{\displaystyle r_{1}>1}

Veröffentlicht am


Die Kastri-Kultur (von einigen Forschern auch Lefkandi I-Kultur genannt) ist eine vorgriechische, bronzezeitliche Gesellschaft auf dem Gebiet der Kykladen, Euböas, Attikas und Böotiens. Sie wird auf den Zeitraum zwischen 24. und 21. Jahrhundert v. Chr. datiert und liegt damit im Übergang zwischen den Phasen II und III der frühhelladischen Zeit innerhalb der Kykladenkultur. Sie ist benannt nach der befestigten Siedlung Kastrί im Nordosten der Insel Syros.

Aufgrund der räumlichen Nähe zu Funden aus der zeitlich vorangegangenen Keros-Syros-Kultur werden beide manchmal unter dem Namen „Keros-Kultur“ zusammengefasst oder die Kastri-Kultur generell der Keros-Syros-Kultur zugeordnet. Französische und deutsche Darstellungen unterscheiden oft nicht, während die neuere Literatur der englischsprachigen Welt in der Regel eine Trennung vornimmt.

In der Kastri-Kultur sind die Siedlungen verdichtet und sie weisen erstmals deutlich erkennbare Befestigungsanlagen auf. Darin wird ein Hinweis auf zunehmende Konflikte zwischen Bevölkerungsgruppen gesehen.

Die bedeutendste der Siedlungen aus der mittleren Epoche der frühkykladischen Zeit ist die namensgebende Festung Kastrί auf Syros. Sie liegt etwa 40 m unter dem Gipfel eines steilen und zerklüfteten Berges an der Route zwischen dem attischen Festland und dem einzigen guten Hafen der Insel, heute die Hauptstadt Ermoupoli. Sie wurde 1898 vom Christos Tsountas, dem „Vater der Kykladenforschung“, entdeckt und ausgegraben. In den 1960er Jahren wurden weitere Grabungen nach modernen Methoden durch die deutsche Archäologin Eva-Maria Fischer-Bossert vom Deutschen Archäologischen Institut in Athen vorgenommen.

Die Siedlung liegt auf der einzigen zugänglichen Seite des Gipfels und ihre Mauern sperren ihn gegen das Meer ab. Die Mauer ist in einer Länge von etwas über 70 m erhalten, eine Verlängerung im Osten um knapp zehn weitere Meter bis zur nächsten Felswand gilt als sicher. Erhalten ist eine Höhe der Befestigungsmauern zwischen 1 und 1,30 m, über die ursprüngliche Höhe kann nur spekuliert werden, 2–2,50 m gelten als wahrscheinlich. Die Stärke der Mauer schwankt zwischen 1,30 und 1,80 m, aus ihr springen fünf Bastionen vor, deren Seitenwände etwas dünner, die Frontseiten aber bis zu 2,50 m dick sind. Diese dem Angreifer zugewandten Fronten der Bastionen sind auch als einzige Bauwerke mit Erdmörtel zur Verstärkung ausgeführt, alle anderen Mauern der Siedlung bestehen aus trocken aufgeschichtetem Kalkstein.

Der Hauptmauer war in einem Abstand von nur 80 cm bis 2,30 m noch ein schwaches Mäuerchen vorgelagert, sodass ein Eindringling einen gefährlichen Zwinger überwinden musste.

Drei Eingänge führten durch die Mauern. Sie waren mit doppelten Toren versehen, die äußere führte in einen kleinen abschließbaren Raum, erst dessen Tür gab den Weg in die Siedlung frei.

Die Siedlung hinter der Mauer hat vermutlich in ihrer Blütezeit den ganzen Gipfel bedeckt. Die Bauten im höchsten Teil sind jedoch nicht einmal im Fundament erhalten. Etwas mehr als 40 Räume, in dichter Bebauung hinter der Mauer lassen sich noch rekonstruieren. Jeweils ein bis zwei Räume bildeten ein Haus. Drei isolierte Bauten gelten als Vorratsspeicher. Ein Komplex mit drei Räumen, die sich um einen, durch eine Stichmauer abgeschirmten Hof lagern, wurden vereinzelt als Heiligtum angesehen. Belege gibt es dafür nicht.

Eines der Gebäude wurde durch Funde von Schlacke, Fragmente von Tiegeln und metallene Werkstücke als Metallgießerei identifiziert. In mehreren konnten noch Überreste von Herden gefunden werden.

Die Wehrmauer wurde im Laufe der Zeit einmal verstärkt, die Siedlungsbauten zeigen aber keine Spuren von Umbauten. Daraus ist zu schließen, dass die Siedlung Kastrί nur kurze Zeit bestand. Ein bis zwei Generationen werden als Dauer angenommen. Dazu passt die kleine Zahl an Gräbern der Epoche. Es gibt Hinweise auf ein großes Feuer in die Siedlung. Ob es der Grund war, sie aufzugeben, oder ob das Leben am Berg, entfernt von Wasserquellen und die selbst im milderen und fruchtbareren Klima der Zeit harschen Lebensbedingungen die Bewohner veranlassten, wegzuziehen, kann nicht mehr beantwortet werden.

Der Kastri-Kultur werden einige weitere kleine Siedlungen zugeordnet. Auf Syros selbst, im Süden von Naxos und bei Pyrgos auf Paros wurden bisher keine systematischen Ausgrabungen vorgenommen.

Freigelegt wurde die kleine Burganlage Korfari ton Amygdalion beim Kap Pánormos im Südosten der Insel Naxos. Sie ist nur 18 auf 24 Meter groß und besteht aus zwanzig kleinen Räumen, die sich innerhalb einer 1 m dicken Mauern mit bastionsartigen Ausbuchtungen zusammendrängen. Es gibt nur einen Zugang über eine 80 cm breite Treppe.

Am Berg Kynthos auf der Insel Delos bestimmt das unebene Gelände des Gipfelplateaus die Siedlungsform; die Bauten hier bestehen nur aus einem Raum und haben teilweise runde Wände. Diese allerdings sind teilweise so dick, dass sie als Befestigung angesehen werden müssen.

In der Kastri-Kultur treten erstmals keramische Gefäße auf, die nicht mehr nur dunkel oder hell gebrannt sind, sondern deren Ton einen kräftigen Rotton aufweist. Typisch für die Epoche sind Henkelkrüge, Tassen mit zwei grazilen Henkeln und depas amphikypellon, schlanke zylindrische Gefäße mit langen, schmalen Henkeln. Daneben treten weiterhin flache Schalen und Pfannen auf, neu sind nach innen gekrümmte Ränder und plastisch aufgesetzte Verzierungen in geometrischen Formen.

Die größte Innovation ist die Töpferscheibe. Auch wenn sie noch selten eingesetzt wird, ermöglicht sie doch den präziseren und wesentlich einfacheren Umgang mit keramischen Formen.

Die wenigen Funde aus Marmor unterscheiden sich nicht von denen der vorangegangenen Keros-Syros-Kultur.

Wesentlich häufiger als früher sind jedoch Funde aus Metall. Ein bronzenes Sägeblatt aus Kastrί ist das älteste der Region. Daneben wurden Ahlen und Meißel gefunden. Die Legierung der Bronze ist identisch mit Funden in Troja II, die Erze kamen vermutlich überwiegend aus Kleinasien. Auch Schmuckstücke wurden aus Metall gefertigt: Aus Kastrί stammt ein Diadem aus Silber, das aus Platten besteht, in die abstrakte, runde Muster, vierfüßige Tiere und eine vermutlich menschliche Figur getrieben wurden.

Eine Siedlung mit so aufwändigen Verteidigungsanlagen wie Kastri muss Vorgänger gehabt haben, die aber bislang nicht gefunden wurden. Die Mauern richteten sich gegen Feinde, die sicher nicht von der Insel Syros selbst stammten, sondern über das Meer erwartet wurden. Für längere Belagerungen war die Siedlung nicht ausgelegt, es fehlte insbesondere an Wasservorräten, so dass die Bedrohung nur in kurzen, heftigen Angriffen bestanden haben kann. In der Literatur wird über Piraten als Gefahr der Kykladensiedlungen spekuliert.

Stilistisch entsprechen viele Funde der Kastri-Kultur den auf Euböa (Lefkandi), Ägina (Kolonna), in Ost-Attika (Rafina) und Böotien (Eutresis, Orchomenos, Theben) gemachten, so dass hier erstmals ein nennenswerter Austausch zwischen den Ägäischen Inseln und dem griechischen Festland angenommen werden kann. Einige Autoren fassen die Kastri-Kultur daher mit der des Festlands unter dem Namen „Lefkandi I-Kultur“ zusammen.

Aus der Kastri-Epoche sind Handelsbeziehungen bis Kreta, sowie nach Kleinasien bekannt. Das Verhältnis der kykladischen Güter in den Zielgebieten zu den Gütern des Festlandes auf den Kykladen gibt einen deutlichen Hinweis darauf, dass es die Inselbewohner waren, die den Handel fest in ihrer Hand hatten. Sie exportierten wesentlich mehr Güter und erwarben ihrerseits nur wenige, hochwertige Produkte.

Am Ende der Kastri-Kultur (kurz nach 2200 v. Chr.) bricht die Siedlungstätigkeit ab. Für 100–150 Jahre gibt es keine bekannte Siedlung auf den Kykladen. Auch an Orten wie Agia Irini auf Kea, die von Anfang der frühkykladischen Zeit und auch später wieder besiedelt waren, gibt es eine große Lücke in der Kontinuität. Die Gründe sind unbekannt. Erst im 20. Jahrhundert v. Chr. sind wieder Siedlungen in den Kykladen nachweisbar, dann beginnt der Aufstieg von Phylakopi auf Milos.

Jacob R. Wortendyke

Jacob Reynier Wortendyke (* 27. November 1818 in Chestnut Ridge, Bergen County, New Jersey; † 7. November 1868 in Jersey City, New Jersey) war ein US-amerikanischer Politiker. Zwischen 1857 und 1859 vertrat er den Bundesstaat New Jersey im US-Repräsentantenhaus.

Jacob Wortendyke genoss zunächst eine private Schulausbildung und besuchte dann bis 1839 das Rutgers College in New Brunswick. In den folgenden zehn Jahren arbeitete er als Lehrer. Nach einem Jurastudium und seiner 1853 erfolgten Zulassung als Rechtsanwalt begann er in Jersey City in diesem Beruf zu praktizieren. Gleichzeitig schlug er als Mitglied der Demokratischen Partei eine politische Laufbahn ein. Bei den Kongresswahlen des Jahres 1856 wurde Wortendyke im fünften Wahlbezirk von New Jersey in das US-Repräsentantenhaus in Washington, D.C. gewählt, wo er am 4. März 1857 die Nachfolge von Alexander C. M. Pennington antrat. Da er im Jahr 1858 dem Republikaner William Pennington unterlag, konnte er bis zum 3. März 1859 nur eine Legislaturperiode im Kongress absolvieren. Diese war von den Ereignissen im Vorfeld des Bürgerkrieges bestimmt.

Nach dem Ende seiner Zeit im US-Repräsentantenhaus arbeitete Wortendyke wieder als Anwalt. Zwischen 1860 und 1868 fungierte er als Präsident der Wasserkommission (Water Board) von New Jersey. Seit 1865 war er auch Präsident der Riparian Commission of New Jersey. Im Jahr 1868 nahm er als Delegierter an der Democratic National Convention in New York teil, auf der Horatio Seymour als Präsidentschaftskandidat nominiert wurde. Jacob Wortendyke starb am 7. November 1868 in Jersey City.

1. Bezirk: Boudinot | Dayton | J. Condit | Boyd | Darby | Boyd | Condict | Kinsey | J. Condit | Kinsey | Cassedy | H. Thompson | T. Sinnickson II | R. Cooper | Dickerson | Chetwood | Randolph II | L. Elmer | Hampton | Hay | N. Stratton | Clawson | Nixon | Starr | W. Moore | Hazelton | C. Sinnickson | Robeson | Ferrell | Hires | Bergen | Loudenslager | Browning | Patterson | Wolverton | Cahill | Hunt | Florio | Andrews | Norcross • 2. Bezirk: Cadwalader | A. Clark I | Kitchell | Imlay | Kitchell | E. Elmer | Newbold | T. Ward | Linn II | Condict | S. Fowler I | Aycrigg | W. Cooper | Aycrigg | Sykes | S. Wright | Sykes | Newell | Skelton | Robbins | J. Stratton | Middleton | Newell | Haight | Forker | Dobbins | Pugh | H. Smith | Brewer | Buchanan | Gardner | J. Baker | Bacharach | Wene | Jeffries | Wene | Hand | Glenn | McGrath | Sandman | W.J. Hughes | LoBiondo • 3. Bezirk: Schureman | Dayton | Thomson | Linn I | Helms | Condict | Schureman | Bennet | B. Smith | Holcombe | Randolph I | Lee | Halstead | Dickerson | Halstead | Farlee | Runk | Edsall | Wildrick | Lilly | Bishop | Adrain | Steele | Sitgreaves | Bird | A. Clark II | Ross | J. Kean | Green | J. Kean | Geissenhainer | B. Howell | Scully | T. Appleby | Geran | S. Appleby | Hoffman | Sutphin | Auchincloss | Howard | Pallone | Saxton | Adler | Runyan | MacArthur

4. Bezirk: T. Sinnickson I | Kitchell | Beatty | Henderson | Schureman | Imlay | Mott | Lambert | Cox | J. Scudder | G. Maxwell | Stockton | H. Southard | Matlack | Tucker | T. Hughes | J. Parker | J. Maxwell | Kille | J. Maxwell | Kirkpatrick | Edsall | Van Dyke | Brown | Vail | Huyler | Riggs | Cobb | Rogers | Hill | Hamilton | A.A. Clark | Harris | Howey | Pidcock | S. Fowler II | Cornish | Pitney | Salmon | Flanagan | Lanning | Wood | Walsh | Hutchinson | Browne | Eaton | Powers | Mathews | C. Howell | F. Thompson | C. Smith • 5. Bezirk: Cadwalader | I. Smith | T. Sinnickson I | Davenport | H. Southard | Morgan | Coxe Jr. | E. Baker | Bloomfield | Swan | I. Southard | Schenck | C. Stratton | Ryall | C. Stratton | W. Wright | Gregory | King | Price | A. Pennington | Wortendyke | W. Pennington | Perry | E. Wright | Halsey | Cleveland | Halsey | Phelps | Cutler | Voorhis | Hill | Phelps | Beckwith | Cadmus | J. Stewart | C. Fowler | Tuttle | Capstick | Birch | Ackerman | P. Stewart | Eaton | P. Frelinghuysen | Fenwick | Roukema | Garrett • 6. Bezirk: Sloan | Hufty | Bines | Bateman | Garrison | Pierson | S. Condit | Shinn | Yorke | Vroom | Yorke | M. Ward | Teese | Peddie | Blake | Jones | Fiedler | H. Lehlbach | English | R. Parker | W. Hughes | Allen | W. Hughes | A. Hart | Martin | A. Hart | Ramsey | Perkins | McLean | Case | Williams | F. Dwyer | Cahill | Forsythe | B. Dwyer | Pallone

7. Bezirk: I. Scudder | Hardenbergh | Brigham | Hardenbergh | McAdoo | McDonald | Fielder | McEwan | Daly | McDermott | R. Parker | Townsend | Bremner | Drukker | Radcliffe | Seger | Perkins | Thomas | Widnall | Maguire | Roukema | Rinaldo | Franks | Ferguson | Lance • 8. Bezirk: Dunn | C. Fowler | Wiley | Pratt | Wiley | McCoy | Kinkead | Gray | McGlennon | Taylor | McNulty | Taylor | P. Moore | Hartley | Seger | Canfield | Joelson | Roe | Klein | Martini | Pascrell | Sires • 9. Bezirk: Benny | Van Winkle | Leake | Kinkead | McCoy | R. Parker | Minahan | R. Parker | Minahan | Fort | Cavicchia | Kenney | Osmers | Towe | Osmers | Helstoski | Hollenbeck | Torricelli | Rothman | Pascrell

10. Bezirk: McDermott | Hamill | Townsend | F. Lehlbach | Hartley | Rodino | Payne | Payne Jr. • 11. Bezirk: Eagan | Olpp | Eagan | Auf der Heide | Cavicchia | O’Neill | Vreeland | Sundstrom | Addonizio | Minish | Gallo | R. Frelinghuysen • 12. Bezirk: Hamill | O’Brien | Norton | F. Lehlbach | Towey | R. Kean | Wallhauser | Krebs | F. Dwyer | Rinaldo | Courter | Zimmer | Pappas | Holt | Watson Coleman • 13. Bezirk: Norton | Sieminski | Gallagher | Maraziti | Meyner | Courter | Forsythe | Saxton | Menendez | Sires • 14. Bezirk: Auf der Heide | E. Hart | Tumulty | Dellay | Daniels | LeFante | Guarini • 15. Bezirk: Patten | B. Dwyer

Peter Schwaiger

Peter Schwaiger (Pseudonym: Autlaw, * 4. Februar 1968 in Steyr, Oberösterreich) ist ein österreichischer Schriftsteller und Musiker.

Peter Schwaiger legte seine Matura an einem Realgymnasium in Waidhofen ab. Danach begann er eine Lehre als Buchhändler in Steyr, die er jedoch abbrach. Er lebt in Klosterneuburg.

Peter Schwaiger ist Verfasser von Kurzprosa, Kinderbüchern und Hörspielen. Er tritt unter dem Namen „Autlaw“ auch als HipHop-Musiker auf und produziert befreundete Bands. 2004 erreichte er mit seiner Formation Autlaw („A Gringo Like Me“) den 5. Platz beim Protestsongcontest.

Peter Schwaiger ist Mitglied der IG Autorinnen Autoren und der Grazer Autorenversammlung. 1997 nahm er am Ingeborg-Bachmann-Wettbewerb in Klagenfurt teil. Er erhielt u.a. 1997 das Hans-Weigel-Literaturstipendium des Landes Niederösterreich und ein Aufenthaltsstipendium des Literarischen Colloquiums Berlin, 1999 den Anerkennungspreis des Landes Niederösterreich für Literarische Kinder- und Jugendbücher und den Theodor-Körner-Preis sowie 2003 das Elias-Canetti-Stipendium der Stadt Wien.

Area Health Education Centers Program

The Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program was a federally funded program established in the United States in 1972 “to improve the supply, distribution, retention and quality of primary care and other health practitioners in medically underserved areas.” The program is „part of a national effort to improve access to health services through changes in the education and training of health professionals.“ The program particularly focuses on primary care.

AHECs are nonprofit organizations strategically located within designated regions where health care and health care education needs are not adequately met. An AHEC works within its region to make health care education (including residency and student rotations) locally available, on the premise that health care workers are likely to remain in an area where they train. An AHEC also works to support practicing professionals with continuing education programs and other support resources and to attract youth (particularly those from minority and medically underserved populations) to health care professions. An AHEC partners with community organizations and academic institutions to fulfill its mission.

According to the National AHEC Organization, in 2009 more than 200 centers comprised the national AHEC program. AHECs are distributed across 48 states and the District of Columbia. In each state, the central program office(s) associated with a university health science center administrates the program and coordinates the efforts of the state’s regional AHECs. „Organization and staffing of AHECs varies greatly and is dependent on the supporting academic health center and availability of financial resources,“ as well as the particular needs of the local area. „Each regional center has an office staffed by a center director and a variable number of support staff that may include an education coordinator, librarian, and 1 or more educators or program coordinators.“ Some AHECs also operate family medicine residency programs, employing medical personnel and support staff.

The National AHEC Organization, the professional association of AHECs, reports that most regional AHECs work in the following program areas:

The AHEC concept and mission originated in a 1970 Carnegie Commission report, Higher Education and the Nation’s Health: Policies for Medical and Dental Education. The report was concerned with “the serious shortage of professional health manpower, the need for expanding and restructuring the education of professional health personnel, and the vital importance of adapting the education of health manpower to the changes needed for an effective system of delivery of health care in the United States.” Among its many recommendations for remedying the problems it detailed, the Carnegie Commission urged a cooperative relationship between communities and health science centers, geographic dispersion of health training centers, shortened training periods for physicians, and creation of “126 area health education centers (AHECs) to serve localities without a health science center.” The Commission also charged universities “to cooperate with other agencies in helping to develop more effective health care delivery systems in their communities and surrounding areas.” These and other recommendations were designed to “put essential health services within one hour of driving time for over 95 percent of all Americans and within this same amount of time for all health care personnel.”

This landmark report proposed a new model for health care education, noting that “The United States today faces only one serious manpower shortage, and that is in health care personnel. This shortage can become even more acute as health insurance expands, leading to even more unmet needs and greater cost inflation, unless corrective action is taken now. It takes a long lead time to get more doctors and dentists.”

The medical education model proposed by the Carnegie Commission in 1970 represented a significant divergence from the Flexner model stimulated by the Flexner Report of 1910 to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Based on research by Abraham Flexner during visits to 147 medical schools in the U.S. and eight in Canada, the Carnegie report recommended increasing the quality of medical care by physicians by increasing admittance and graduation standards, extending training periods, and eliminating medical schools that did not meet standards. Proprietary two-year institutions that resembled trade schools for physicians came under particular criticism. In the period following the Flexner Report, the number of medical school graduates and medical schools declined, with the number of medical schools stabilizing at 76 by 1929. Conversely, the population was steadily increasing, with a rise of 35 million between 1925 and 1950. Declaring a crisis in meeting the health care needs of the population, the Carnegie Commission report of 1970 called for policies that would increase the health care workforce to fill the growing gaps in health care.

The new model of 1970 called for increased production of health care professionals, an increase in the number of training centers, geographic dispersion of training centers, expanded use and increased production of trained supportive professionals (physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and allied health professions to supplement physicians and dentists, and increased diversity of persons trained. “To serve all the people everywhere,” the new model called for the following changes:

“The responsibility for administering federal support of AHECs in conformity with the Carnegie model, that is, through contracts with university health centers, was assigned by June to the BHME in DHEW [Bureau of Health Manpower in the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institutes of Health] by the Office of Management and Budget…on June 12, 1972 the BHME released a letter of announcement of a program for the support of AHECs, which was sent to all who had requested information regarding the ‘Health Manpower Initiative Awards’ of the Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act o 197l…They were told that the government would refuse to consider any response postmarked later than June 25, 1972…The announcement…stated that contracts would be awarded no later than September 30, 1972.

“(In any consideration of the history of the first 11 AHECs, the short time span between the announcement of the federal program on June 12 and the award of contracts on September 30 should be kept firmly in mind.)” „The national AHEC office not only had to work fast; it was also understaffed from its inception, with only three professional employees to supervise relations with 11 projects widely scattered over the nation.“

The House Appropriations hearing report stated: “.certain staffing patterns were noted in BHM which indicate that there may be staffing imbalances among divisions….the Division of Medicine was administering about four times the amount of funds administered by the Division of Dentistry, but with 24 percent less staff…In sharper contrast, the AHEC staff was administering funds totaling about 44 percent of the funds administered by the Division of Dentistry, but with only 3 percent of the size of the Division of Dentistry staff.”

In a footnote to his report, Odegaard cited sources of information on the AHEC program. He noted, “An additional source of information is found in the response to a request for information from the congressional surveys and investigation staff contained in a letter of reply dated December 23, 1977 from Daniel R. Smith, Chief, AHEC staff and National Coordinator and the only federal official in the executive branch who has been associated with the federal AHEC program since its implementation.”

In 1971, „Congress passed the Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act (Public Law 92-157), which in [Section 774(a)] provided the AHEC Program with legislative authority.“ In 1972, 11 universities were awarded five-year, “incrementally funded, cost-shared contracts for AHEC programs.” In 1977, Public Law 94-484 funded 12 more AHEC programs.

According to the House Appropriations Report for fiscal 1979, „In September 1977, just before the original contracts expired, BHM awarded 1-year contracts, totaling $14 million for the continuation of the existing AHEC’s. BHM, at that time, also awarded 1-year contracts, totaling $700,000 to four other medical schools for the planning of new AHECs.“ After 1984, additional programs were funded. Funding continues to be focused on primary care in rural and inner city areas that are medically underserved.

Today, the AHEC Program is administered by the Division of Diversity and Interdisciplinary Education, Bureau of Health Professions (Title VII), in the Health Resources and Services Administration. „Cost-sharing contracts provide support for planning and development (not to exceed 2 years) and operation of the AHEC Program.“ AHEC programs competitively seek funding from their states and the federal Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA).

„The Carnegie Council reaffirmed faith in the AHEC concept, regarding the formation of AHECs ‚as one of the most encouraging and impressive developments under the 1971 legislation.'“

“The National AHEC Program has been a successful catalyst for forming educational linkages between health science centers and communities,” reported Gessert and Smith, then senior medical officer and the chief of the AHEC Branch, Division of Medicine, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, respectively. Further, Gessert and Smith’s 1981 report cites these specific findings reported to Congress in 1979 by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare on assessment of the original 11 AHEC programs funded in 1972:

In 1999, Ricketts reported that “AHEC programs have coordinated and supported the training of nearly 1.5 million health professions students and primary care residents in underserved areas with an explicit focus on rural areas in most state programs.”

AHECs are challenged to become increasingly self-funded in response to ongoing federal and state budget cuts since 2000. “Advocates including the National AHEC Organization, National Rural Health Association, National Association of Community Health Centers, and the Health Professions Nursing and Education Coalition have focused attention on the need for restoring and expanding AHECs and other Title VII programs.”